2. Zone 4 coagulation, also known as sweep floc, was used for these experiments. Thus, pH must be controlled to establish optimum conditions for coagulation. Disinfection for killing bacteria viruses and other pathogens. Shown Above: The flash mix portion is also known as coagulation. Flocculation takes out suspended colloids. ENMESHMENT IN A PRECIPITATE (Sweep-Floc Coagulation) When a metal salt is added to water in concentration sufficiently high Precipitates of metal hydroxides (e.g., Al (OH)3, Fe (OH)3 with form Colloidal particles can be enmeshed (entrapped) in the precipitates and settle with them 33. neutralization or coagulation of colloidal particles in the presence of Al (OH) 3 is termed as enmeshment or sweep floc. 1. What is a Coagulation The jar test is a common laboratory procedure used to determine the optimum operating conditions for water or wastewater treatment. The chemicals are added together and the process occurs within seconds. Treatment Process to produce water that is free of chemicals and microorganisms, and is aesthetically pleasing. Destabilization using Al(III) and Fe(III) Salts diagram the area defined as optimum sweep coagulation is the area for best settling floc, and is defined by the major parameters of alum dose of 20-60 mg/l and a pH of 7.0 to 8.0. Physico Chemical Processes (EN 525) If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Customer Code: Creating a Company Customers Love, Be A Great Product Leader (Amplify, Oct 2019), Trillion Dollar Coach Book (Bill Campbell). Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Because of this, the sedimentation step is usually preceded by a chemical process known as coagulation. In this scenario its almost impossible to overdose. The jar testing apparatus consists of six paddles which stir the contents of six 1 liter containers. The sweep flocs can be described as large aggregates of Al (OH)3/Fe (OH)3 that are formed when Al/Fe salt is added to water. One container acts as a control while the operating conditions can be varied among the remaining five containers. Flocculation (in polymer science): When a sol is colloidally unstable (I.e., the rate of aggregation is not negligible) then the formation of aggregates is called flocculation or coagulation. dosages may approach those of the sweep floc range, probably dont get sweep floc because much of the coagulant is used by the colloids. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. 1 This process is known as the ‘sweep-floc’ mechanism. Fall 2017 Since the beginning, the objective of water treatment has not changed i.e. The coagulation/flocculation (C/F) processes are mainly due to charge neutralisation (CN) and sweepflocculation (SF) mechanisms. coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, water treatment Educational Standards ... sweep flocculation, and inter-particle bridging. It potentially results in hemostasis, the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel, followed by repair. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. APIdays Paris 2019 - Innovation @ scale, APIs as Digital Factories' New Machi... No public clipboards found for this slide. Thus, we can understand the process of coagulation and flocculation with the help of examples derived from water treatment techniques. [1] Agglomeration (except in polymer science) In coagulation, the forces responsible for keeping the particles apart after they contact, are reduced. This process is known as the “sweep-floc” mechanism. From the numerous reviews of the fundamental theory and mechanisms of coagulation, See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Particles were presumed to be swept into a mesh of coagulant precipitate at coagulant dosages that are typically used in … this blog include Treatment process and Equipment for … Smaller floc also may not settle. 2.1.1 Coagulation and Flocculation Coagulation, a process of agglomerating colloidal particles, using chemicals such as aluminum sulfate, ferrous sulfate, ferric chloride, aluminum chloride, etc. Coagulation and Floculation - Free download as Powerpoint ... enmesh the colloids in a “sweep floc”. Coagulant aids, also known as polyelectrolytes - which improves coagulation and for more robust floc formation 5. Flocculants, or flocculating agents (also known as flocking agents), are chemicals that promote flocculation by causing colloids and other suspended particles in liquids to aggregate, forming a floc. Dated: 8th October, 2017 However, the SFmechanism has also its CN property moreover than its well-known weighting characteristic. suspension and settled along with the sinking iron or aluminium. Jar Testing Apparatus But the phenomena are also well-known from everyday life – especially coagulation. The second explanation was called sweep flocculation and was the catch all explanation that was used to describe observations that didn’t fit the charge neutralization explanation. Coagulation and flocculation are an essential part of drinking water treatment as well as wastewater treatment. Examples of inorganic coagulants are as below: Aluminum Sulfate (Alum) – One of the most commonly used water treatment chemicals in the world. When added to water, inorganic coagulants form aluminum or iron precipitates. A … See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. The time needed to achieve efficient coagulation varies depending on the coagulation mechanism involved. Jar Test Procedure, Destabilization using Al(III) and Fe(III) Salts. Associate Professor Sometime high molecular weight polymers are also added known as coagulant aids. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. In contrast, in flocculation, the de-stabilization is brought about by physical techniques such as mixing of the solution, and also sometimes by the addition of polymers. After flash mix, the water heads to the flocculation basins to allow floc particles to gather in size. However, the SF … Material for this article was largely taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. A rpm gage at the top-center of the device allows for the uniform control of the mixing speed in all of the containers. Sedimentation, flotation and/or filtration systems are then used to separate the floc (see the section sedimentation, filtration, as well as flocculators – settlin… Flocculation brings the de-established colloidal particles together and they form large aggregates. Al3+ + 3 ... particles come close to each other to produce larger visible flocs. They are typically used for treatment of wastewater containing colloids (suspended particles) and metal ions. Dissolved organic can be removed by adsorption on aluminum precipitation (Benschoten, 1990). Also we get stoichiometry of coagulation. In potable water treatment, clarification of water using coagulating agents has been practiced from ancient times. have been used in the past for distillery wastewater treatment. Other particles in the water are swept up into the coagulant flocs and are removed during sedimentation. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Abstract and Figures The coagulation/flocculation (C/F) processes are mainly due to charge neutralisation (CN) and sweep flocculation (SF) mechanisms. Also known as Sweep Floc. The process is basically a combination of destabilisation (charge neutralisation) and transport (physical entrainment) (Amirtharajah, 1990). Both these techniques are employed in the treatment of water. They help in binding and strengthen the floc … This method allows adjustments in pH, variations in coagulant or polymer dose, alternating mixing speeds, or testing of different coagulant or polymer types, on a small scale in order to predict the functioning of a large scale treatment operation. After employing the flocculation process, the coagulated particles form a large agglomeration, which is also known as floc. The downstream processing of rhamnolipid using synergistic action of sweep-floc coagulation and acidification also puts forward an efficient cost effective strategy with only 2 % loss, an important aspect to be considered in the current industrial market scenario, with market price of rhamnolipid biosurfactants (90 % purity) ranging between 3253$ (Sigma-Aldrich) - 700$ (Natsurfact)/kg. Roll No. Coagulation and flocculation are well-known techniques within wastewater treatment. What is a Colloidal Suspension – Definition, Properties, Process. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Sweep floc occurs when coagulant is added past the point of solubility, creating insoluble “flocs” that aggregate. AND Bench-scale experiments were performed to evaluate virus control by an integrated electrochemical–microfiltration (MF) process from turbid (15 NTU) surface water containing moderate amounts of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, 5 mg C/L) and calcium hardness (50 mg/L as CaCO3). Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. Methods of Flocculation. FLOCCULATION Larger floc settle and filter easier than small pin-point or carry-over floc. As early as 2000 BC the Egyptians used al… For this reason, fluid shear is the primary mechanism of floc formation, making the mechanical mixing of the water important in flocculation. Large, heavy particles settle out readily, but smaller and lighter particles settle very slowly or in some cases do not settle at all. The results presented here provide insight to jar test data and help explain why better settling often is observed in practice for sweep-floc coagulation as compared to floc produced by a charge-neutralization mechanism. Submitted to: Dr. Atif Mustafa Mechanical flocculators can be installed both horizontally and vertically. Sedimentation for solids separation 6. Water treatment process is the process in which water from various sources is treated to a water quality or standard that meets its intended use. Coagulation, also known as clotting, is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot. The solubility of Al (OH) 3 (s) and Fe (OH) 3 (s) is minimal at a particular pH and increases as the pH increases or decreases from that value. Colloid Entrapment Occurs when large dosages of coagulant are added which precipitate as hydrous metal oxides. Precipitation of amorphous metal hydroxide is necessary for sweep-floc coagulation. These help to clean the water by absorbing impurities in the water as they fall. 3) ENMESHMENT IN A PRECIPITATE (Sweep-FlocCoagulation) When a metal salt (e.gAl2(SO 4)3or FeCl3) is added to water in precipitatatesof metal hydroxides [e.g., Al(OH) , Coagulation& Flocculation: Destabilization of Colloids concentrations sufficiently high 3 Fe(OH)3] willform colloidalparticlescan be enmeshed (entrapped) in the precipitatesandsettle Water supply system - Water supply system - Coagulation and flocculation: Suspended particles cannot be removed completely by plain settling. : EN 18 / 2017 - 18 ... occur between any size particles. This is known as ‘sweep-floc’ coagulation (Packham, 1965). This is the most popular mode of coagulation used in both wastewater and • The best floc size is 0.1 to 3 mm. It is found that fractal dimension is lower for sweep-floc coagulation where larger and more irregular aggregates are produced. The action differs fromprecipitation in that, prior to flocculation, colloids are merely suspended in a liquid and not actually dissolved in a solution. Coagulation and flocculation processes are used to facilitate the elimination of suspended solids and colloids by gathering these together to form floc. 4. Coagulation can … 59 (No Transcript) 60 However, this can add to the overall sludge volume that must be treated and removed, so it’s not the right choice in every scenario. Higher reductions in MS2 bacteriophage concentrations were obtained by aluminum … Flocculants are used in water treatment processes to improve the … However, a downside of metal hydroxide precipitate sweep-floc is that they add to the overall sludge volume that must be treated and removed. Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process wherein colloids come out ofsuspension in the form of floc or flake; either spontaneously or due to the addition of aclarifying agent. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. 1. KASHIF SHABBIR Department of Environmental Engineering Coagulation is achieved by neutralizing the particles and thus, the repelling force between the particles is greatly reduced. This is the key difference between coagulation and flocculation. Typically aluminum or iron salts are used. When the mechanism is charge neutralization, the detention time needed may be one second or less. Overview of the Process Image of floc … NED University of Engineering & Technology. Coagulation in Water Treatment • The floc will then settle out in the sedimentation basin, with remaining floc being removed in the filter. When the mechanism is sweep floc or entrapment, longer detention times on the order of 1 to 30 seconds may be appropriate. This article provides an overview of the processes and looks at the latest thinking. COAGULATION Filtration to remove particles 7. Jar Test Floc point, also known as Freon floc point, is used to measure the performance and consistency of refrigeration oils. Larger floc does not settle as well and is more subject to breakup in the flocculation basin. This information can be recompiled into the following chart . The basis for this domain is not only the kinetics of coagulation reactions but also … While the operating conditions for coagulation to produce water that is free of chemicals and microorganisms, and provide! To achieve efficient coagulation varies depending on the coagulation mechanism involved paddles which stir the contents of paddles. You want to go back to later, 1965 ) mechanical mixing of the heads! Mix, the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel, followed by repair treated removed. Floc being removed in the filter as a control while the operating conditions can be removed by adsorption aluminum. Uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to show you more ads! 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